GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions [Updated 2022]

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GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions [Updated 2022]


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Introduction To GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions


Are you getting ready to take the GAMSAT? If so, you will want to make sure that you are familiar with the types of GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions that will be asked on the exam.

GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions

In this blog post, we will provide you with a few GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions of the test. These questions will give you a good idea of what to expect on exam day.

Section 1 of the GAMSAT is designed to assess your ability to understand and analyse arguments. You will be given a selection of passages, each followed by a number of questions.


The questions will ask you to identify the main idea of the passage, to make inferences based on the information provided, and to draw conclusions from the argument.


You will need to read the passages carefully and think critically in order to answer these questions correctly.


There are two major systems of criminal procedure in the modern world—the adversarial and the inquisitorial. The former is associated with common law tradition and the latter with civil law tradition. Both systems were historically preceded by the system of private vengeance in which the victim of a crime fashioned his own remedy and administered it privately, either personally or through an agent. The vengeance system was a system of self-help, the essence of which was captured in the slogan “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.”

The modern adversarial system is only one historical step removed from the private vengeance system and still retains some of its characteristic features. Thus, for example, even though the right to institute criminal action has now been extended to all members of society, and even though the police department has taken over the pretrial investigative functions on behalf of the prosecution, the adversarial system still leaves the defendant to conduct his own pretrial investigation. The trial is still viewed as a duel between two adversaries, refereed by a judge who, at the beginning of the trial, has no knowledge of the investigative background of the case. In the final analysis the adversarial system of criminal procedure symbolises and regularises punitive combat.

By contrast, the inquisitorial system begins historically where the adversarial system stopped its development. It is two historical steps removed from the system of private vengeance. Therefore, from the standpoint of legal anthropology, it is historically superior to the adversarial system. Under the inquisitorial system the public investigator has the duty to investigate not just on behalf of the prosecutor but also on behalf of the defendant. Additionally, the public prosecutor has the duty to present to the court not only evidence that may lead to the conviction of the defendant but also evidence that may lead to his exoneration. This system mandates that both parties permit full pretrial discovery of the evidence in their possession. Finally, in an effort to make the trial less like a duel between two adversaries, the inquisitorial system mandates that the judge take an active part in the conduct of the trial, with a role that is both directive and protective.

Fact-finding is at the heart of the inquisitorial system. This system operates on the philosophical premise that in a criminal case the crucial factor is not the legal rule but the facts of the case and that the goal of the entire procedure is to experimentally recreate for the court the commission of the alleged crime.


GAMSAT Section 1 Retrieval Practice Questions


Retrieval questions test your ability to locate information in the passage. They may also involve simple paraphrasing and summarising, but they do not require any substantial analysis or interpretation.


They will include some reference to a detail in the passage (a person’s name, a theory, a time period, etc.).


Retrieval GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions may be phrased in these ways:


  • “According to the passage, the three components of Brown’s theory are...”
  • “The passage states that Brown’s theory is rejected by...”
  • Which of the following statements is not mentioned as a characteristic of Brown’s theory?” (Except/Least/Not format)


Example Retrieval Type GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions 


Question 1:

According to the author, the inquisitorial system is two steps removed from:
A) the adversarial system.
B) the system of punitive vengeance.
C) pretrial discovery.
D) regularized punitive combat.


GAMSAT Section 1 retrieval type question tips:


  1. Read the question word for word and identify the question type. The words “according to the passage” tell us that this is a Retrieval question.
  2. Translate the question into your own words; identify what the question task is asking you to do with the information in the passage. Retrieval questions tend to be fairly straightforward. Here, the question is asking us to locate information in the passage about the inquisitorial system, and to find an answer choice that is best supported by that information.
  3. Identify key words and phrases that refer to specific parts of the passage and go back to the passage to locate that information. The word “inquisitorial” appears in all three paragraphs. However, “two historical steps” is found only in the beginning of paragraph 2. That is where we will find the answer to this question.
  4. Answer in your own words; articulate what the correct answer will need to do, based on the question type and the information in the passage. The correct answer will state what the “inquisitorial system” is two steps removed from. If we start at the beginning of paragraph 2 and read five lines down, we see that it is “two historical steps removed from the system of private vengeance.” The correct answer needs to state or paraphrase this. Also note that paragraph 1 describes the two systems that preceded the inquisitorial system; any choice that mixes up the three systems will be incorrect.
  5. Use Process of Elimination  to choose the least wrong answer choice. As we indicated earlier, each question usually has at least one trap or attractor answer, that is, a choice that “sounds good” but in fact has some significant flaw. Because Retrieval questions tend to be relatively easy, the GAMSAT writers often try to distract you from the right response by pairing it with an answer choice that sounds very similar to the passage but is not directly supported by it.


These attractors often copy words and phrases directly from the passage text, but don’t capture the meaning of those words in the passage.


The GAMSAT test writers may also give you an answer choice that is directly supported by the text, but that is not an appropriate answer to that particular question.


They may also change or reverse a relationship (for example, the passage says A leads to B, and the wrong answer says that B leads to A). 


The only way to spot and avoid these traps is to go back to the passage and reread the relevant sections.


Let’s take a look at each answer choice from  GAMSAT Section 1 retrieval question:


  • A: No. The first sentence of paragraph 2 states that “the inquisitorial system begins historically where the adversarial system stopped its development.” We also know from paragraph 1 that the adversarial system followed “the system of private vengeance.” Therefore, the inquisitorial system is one step, not two steps, removed from the adversarial system. This is a classic trap answer on a Retrieval question; it gives us something that is discussed in the same part of the passage, but that doesn’t match the specific reference in the question task.
  • B: Correct answer. Notice that that the author uses “punitive combat” at the end of paragraph 1 to describe what came before the adversarial system (the adversarial system regularised  that punitive combat). Thus “punitive vengeance” is another way of saying “private vengeance.” Therefore, this choice is directly supported by the relevant part of the passage.
  • C: No. This choice takes words from the passage out of context, and doesn’t directly address the question task. Pretrial discovery is part of the inquisitorial system; it isn’t something that the inquisitorial system is removed from.
  • D: No. This choice is tricky because it sounds a lot like choice B. But when we compare the two, we see that choice D mentions regularised punitive combat. The end of paragraph 1 states that “the adversarial system...symbolises and regularises punitive combat.” “Punitive combat” itself describes the system of private vengeance. So, this is just another way of saying “the adversarial system,” and just like choice A it is incorrect.


GAMSAT Section 1 Inference Type Practice Questions

GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions

Inference questions are the most common GAMSAT Section 1 questions you'll get. They require you to choose the answer that is best supported by the passage. There is no such thing as being “too close” to the passage to qualify as an inference.


An answer that directly paraphrases the passage may in fact be (and often is) the correct answer.


To approach an Inference question, find the relevant section or sections of the passage. Check each answer choice against that information, choosing the one that has the most support.


The response may seem like a stretch (for example, something that you think is not particularly “reasonable” to conclude), but it will be the best supported of the four questions that you will be presented with.


Be agile; the correct answer may be something that you would never have come up with on your own, but there will be some evidence for it in the passage.


GAMSAT Section 1 Inference questions are often phrased in the following ways:


  • “It can inferred from the passage that...”
  • “Based on the passage, it is reasonable to assume that...”
  • “The author implies that Brown’s theory is most closely linked to...”
  • “Implicit in the passage is the contention that Brown’s theory is...”
  • “The author suggests that...”
  • “Based on information in the passage, it can be most reasonably concluded that...”
  • “With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?”
  • “Which of the following statements is best supported by the passage?”


Example Inference Type GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions 


Question 2:

The passage suggests that the inquisitorial system differs from the adversarial system in that:
A) it provides the judge with information about the findings of the pretrial investigation.
B) it makes the defendant solely responsible for gathering evidence.
C) it guarantees that all defendants get a fair trial.
D) a defendant who is innocent would prefer to be tried under the inquisitorial system.


GAMSAT Section 1 inference type question tips:

 

  1. Read the question word for word and identify the question type. The words “The passages suggests that” identify this as an Inference question.
  2. Translate the question into your own words; identify what the question task is asking you to do with the information in the passage. This question is asking us how the author contrasts the inquisitorial with the adversarial system.
  3. Identify key words and phrases that refer to specific parts of the passage and go back to the passage to locate that information. This is where many students falter, thinking that they don’t need to go back to the passage because the question is asking us to infer something (or, in this case, what is suggested). The correct answer still must be closely based on the passage text, not on your own ideas or deductions. The words “inquisitorial” and “adversarial” appear in multiple places. However, the words “in contrast” at the beginning of paragraph 2 indicate that this is the beginning of the author’s discussion of the differences between the two systems. Your annotation should alert you to the fact that there are a variety of differences listed in this paragraph. Don’t reread the whole paragraph at this point, but you will need to check the answer choices against it.
  4. Answer in your own words; articulate what the correct answer will need to do, based on the question type and the information in the passage. The right response will need to not only match the description of the two systems, but will also need to correctly describe a difference between them.
  5. Use Process of Elimination to choose the least wrong answer choice. A wide variety of attractors appear in Inference answer choices. One of the most common is a statement that puts information from the passage into overly absolutist or extreme language. For example, the passage may say that something often occurs, while the trap answer will say that same thing always occurs. Do not, however, eliminate a choice for an Inference question only because it is narrower or more moderate than the scope or wording of the passage. Be careful to eliminate answer choices that are out of scope; that is, answer choices which refer to issues that could be tangentially related but that are never discussed in the passage. Just like for Retrieval questions, look out for attractors that take words out of context, or that are supported by the passage but not relevant to the question.


Let’s take a look at each answer choice from  GAMSAT Section 1 inference question:


  • A: Correct. At the end of paragraph 2, the author states (in the context of differences between the two systems) that “the judge takes an active part in the conduct of the trial that is both directive and protective.” Earlier in that same paragraph, the author also states that the inquisitorial system requires “full pretrial discovery.” From this we can infer that in the inquisitorial system the judge would have access to information uncovered in the pre-trial investigation or discovery.
  • BNo. The passage suggests that this is true of the adversarial, not the inquisitorial system.
  • C: No. This choice is too extreme. The passage suggests that the inquisitorial system may lead to increased fairness, but not that fairness is guaranteed.
  • D: No. Although many of these words appear in the passage, there is nothing to suggest which system an innocent person would prefer. While this choice makes common sense, it is too much of a stretch, especially when compared with choice A which is directly supported by the passage text.


GAMSAT Section 1 Vocabulary Type Practice Questions


Vocabulary in Context questions ask you to define what the author means by a certain word or phrase.

They are very similar to inference questions, in the sense that they are asking what the author is suggesting or implying by the use of those terms.

The correct answer must fit in the context of the relevant sentence and the paragraph containing that sentence, and must be consistent with the Bottom Line of the passage as a whole. As for all specific questions, you must go back to the passage and read in context. 


Vocabulary in Context questions are often worded as follows:

  • “As it is used in the passage, the phrase theoretical rigor refers to...”
  • “With respect to Brown’s model, theoretical rigor (paragraph 1) most likely indicates...”
  • “The term theoretical rigor refers implicitly to Brown’s...”
  • “The phrase theoretically rigorous conduct means that a researcher should...”
    “The word rigorous (paragraph 1) is used in the sense of...”


Example Vocabulary Type GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions  


Question 3:

It can be inferred from the passage that the phrase pretrial discovery (paragraph 2) most nearly means:

A) the obligatory sharing of evidence between the prosecution and defence.
B) the directive and protective role of the judge.
C) the duty of the prosecutor to present evidence for conviction.
D) the evidence that is gathered before the trial.


GAMSAT Section 1 vocabulary type question tips:


  1. Read the question word for word and identify the question type. While this question may at first appear to be an Inference question, it is asking us what the author means by “pretrial discovery.” This makes it a Vocabulary in Context question.
  2. Translate the question into your own words; identify what the question task is asking you to do with the information in the passage. The question is asking us to find a definition or description of “pretrial discovery” that fits into the context of the relevant part of the passage.
  3. Identify key words and phrases that refer to specific parts of the passage and go back to the passage to locate that information. We can find those words in the last third of paragraph 2. The passage says that under the inquisitorial system “the public prosecutor has the duty to present to the court not only evidence that may lead to the conviction of the defendant but also evidence that may lead to his exoneration. This system mandates that both parties permit full pretrial discovery of the evidence in their possession.”
  4. Answer in your own words; articulate what the correct answer will need to do, based on the question type and the information in the passage. The correct answer needs to fit with the idea that both the prosecutor and the defendant must disclose all “evidence in their possession.”
  5. Use Process of Elimination to choose the least wrong answer choice. Eliminate the choices that are clearly inconsistent with the text, or that don’t correspond to the appropriate issue. Then, take any remaining choices back to the text and substitute them for the word or words to be defined. The credited response will be the answer that, when inserted into that sentence, makes sense without changing the meaning of the sentence. It must also be consistent with the main idea of that paragraph and of the passage as a whole. Be on the lookout for attractors that give legitimate dictionary or colloquial/common sense definitions of a word that are not consistent with the passage. Also beware of choices that over generalise or that are too narrow in scope to accurately represent the author’s meaning.


Let’s take a look at each answer choice from  GAMSAT Section 1 vocabulary question:


  • A: Correct answer. In the sentence before the one in question, the author discusses the duty of the prosecutor to present all of the evidence that has been discovered, whether it helps or hinders the prosecutor’s case. This duty applies to the defence as well. Therefore, “pretrial discovery” refers to the requirement that all evidence is shared.
  • B: No. While this is mentioned in the same paragraph, it is not relevant to the question. Note the word “finally” in the passage. This is a clue that we have moved on to another difference between the inquisitorial and adversarial systems; we are no longer talking about the issue of sharing information.
  • C: No. This choice is too narrow. The prosecutor has to also present evidence that would not support conviction. Furthermore, the defence has the same duty; it is not limited to the prosecutor.
  • D: No. This is a classic trap for Vocabulary in Context questions! While this would fit a common-sense definition, it doesn’t fit with the meaning of the passage. “Pretrial discovery”refers to the sharing of the evidence by both sides, not to the evidence itself.


GAMSAT Section 1 Main Idea or Primary Purpose Type Practice Questions


These questions require you to summarise claims and implications made throughout the passage in order to formulate a general statement of the central point or primary activity of the passage.


Think of the passage as an argument.


The main idea is the overall claim, supported by specific evidence in the various paragraphs, which the author wants to convince you to accept as true. The main idea is then very closely related; it will express what the author does in order to convey the main Idea.


Good active GAMSAT Section 1 reading is the key to these questions; don’t wait until you encounter a Main Idea question to think about the Main Point or Bottom Line of the passage.


Synthesise the major themes as you read the passage. Filter these themes into a summary of the content and tone of the author’s argument or presentation.


This is your foundation for answering any question, not just for main Idea GAMSAT section 1 question types.  

Main Idea GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions are often phrased in these ways:


  • “The main idea of the passage is that...”
  • “The central thesis of this passage is...”


Primary Purpose GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions are often phrased as follows:


  • “The author’s primary purpose is to explain that...”


Example Main Idea and Purpose Type GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions  


Question 4:

The primary purpose of the passage is to:
A) explain why the inquisitorial system is the best system of criminal justice.
B) explain how the adversarial and the inquisitorial systems of criminal justice both evolved from the system of private vengeance.
C) show how the adversarial and inquisitorial systems of criminal justice can both complement and hinder each other’s development.
D) analyse two systems of criminal justice and deduce which one is more advanced.


GAMSAT Section 1 main idea and purpose type question tips:


  1. Read the question word for word and identify the question type. General questions are generally very easy to identify. Here, the words “primary purpose” tip us off.
  2. Translate the question into your own words; identify what the question task is asking you to do with the information in the passage. The question is asking us to summarise the author’s overall goal in writing this passage. A good translation of this question would be: “Why did the author describe the two modern criminal procedure systems, as well as the pre-modern system of private vengeance?”
  3. Identify key words and phrases that refer to specific parts of the passage and go back to the passage to locate that information. On Main Idea and Primary Purpose GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions you will not usually need to go back to the passage before reading the choices. Use your original articulation of the Bottom Line to take a first pass or cut through the choices. You may, however, need to go back to the passage when you are down to two or three choices.
  4. Answer in your own words; articulate what the correct answer will need to do, based on the question type and the information in the passage. For this type, the correct answer needs to include (explicitly or implicitly) all of the major themes of the passage, without going beyond the scope of the author’s argument. Our own answer to this question would be something like: “The author describes the pre-modern system of private vengeance in order to set up contrast between the adversarial and inquisitorial systems; the adversarial system is closer to the system of private vengeance, and the inquisitorial system is more highly evolved.”
  5. Use Process of Elimination to choose the least wrong answer choice. Common attractors for Main Idea and Primary Purpose GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions will understate or overstate the author’s point. Choices that summarise the main idea of a paragraph or two but which leave out other major themes are too narrow. Vague or overly inclusive choices that go beyond the scope of the passage are too broad. Take the “Goldilocks approach”: eliminate what is too big or too small, and find the one that is just right. For primary purpose  questions, focus in part on the verb in each answer choice,  and eliminate the ones that are inappropriate; that is, too opinionated, too neutral, or that go in the opposite direction from the passage. Eliminate choices that are too extreme. Is the author really proving or disproving a claim, or just supporting or challenging that claim? Eliminate any verb that expresses an opinion (criticising, propounding, etc.) on a neutral passage (explaining, describing, etc.) and vice versa. Be very careful to read and evaluate all parts of each answer choice. An answer choice may begin beautifully, but change halfway through to bring in something inconsistent with or irrelevant to the author’s argument. If any part of the choice is wrong, the whole thing is wrong. 


Let’s take a look at each answer choice from  GAMSAT Section 1 main idea and primary purpose question:


  • A: No. This choice is too extreme (“the best”), and also too broad in scope. The passage only compares the inquisitorial system to the adversarial and private vengeance systems, not to all other systems of criminal justice.
  • B: No. This choice is too narrow in scope. The author not only explains this evolutionary connection, but explicitly contrasts the inquisitorial with the adversarial system in order to judge the former to be “historically superior.”
  • C: No. This choice is out of scope. The passage never suggests that these two systems coexist, or that one would either contribute to, or get in the way of, the other.
  • D: Correct. While this choice does not explicitly mention the system of private vengeance, it doesn’t need to; the author discusses the pre-modern system of private vengeance in order to argue that the inquisitorial system is historically superior to the adversarial system (because the adversarial system is closer to the system of private vengeance).


GAMSAT Section 1 Tone and Attitude Type Practice Questions

GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions

Tone and Attitude questions ask you to evaluate whether or not the author expresses an opinion regarding the material in the passage, and if so, to judge how strongly positive or negative that opinion is.


Pure Tone or Attitude questions are fairly rare (however, Main Idea and Primary Purpose questions always involve assessing the tone of the passage).


Just as for Main Idea and Primary Purpose questions, you must identify the tone of the author through active GAMSAT reading before you begin any of the questions.


When pure Tone/Attitude questions do appear, they are usually general questions, as in the following:


  • “In this passage, the author’s tone is one of...”
  • “The author’s attitude can best be described as...”


These questions may also ask about the author’s attitude towards a particular part of the passage, as in:


  • “The author’s attitude toward Brown’s claim can best be described as...”
    “What is the tone of the author’s response to Brown’s critics?”
  • “The author’s attitude towards the controversy surrounding Brown’s theory can best be characterised as exhibiting...”


Example Tone and Attitude Type GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions  


Question 5:

The author’s attitude regarding the evolution of criminal procedure systems can best be characterised as:
A) condemnatory.
B) instructive.
C) admiring.
D) ambivalent.


GAMSAT Section 1 tone and attitude type question tips:


  1. Read the question word for word and identify the question type. The word “attitude” is a pretty clear indication of a tone question. Because the passage as a whole is about the evolution of criminal procedure systems, this is a General Attitude question.
  2. Translate the question into your own words; identify what the question task is asking you to do with the information in the passage. This question is asking us what the author thinks about how criminal procedures have changed over time.
  3. Identify key words and phrases that refer to specific parts of the passage and go back to the passage to locate that information. As with most General questions, you already have an answer, based on the passage, in mind. Therefore you may not need to go back to the passage before you begin evaluating the answer choices. However, you may well need to refer back to the passage during the process of elimination.
  4. Answer in your own words; articulate what the correct answer will need to do, based on the question type and the information in the passage. The correct answer must be fairly neutral in tone. The author is describing how criminal procedure has evolved, not condemning or advocating any particular system. The author does state that the inquisitorial system is superior, but in the context of being “historically superior;” that is, more highly evolved.
  5. Use Process of Elimination  to choose the least wrong answer choice.  Common attractors on attitude and tone questions are choices that take the author’s opinion to extremes. If the passage expresses qualified or moderate admiration, for example, an attractor may incorrectly describe the author as “enthusiastic.” If the author expresses both positive and negative thoughts about a subject, incorrect answer choices may leave out the positive or ignore the negative. Also, positive and negative comments don’t cancel each other out to create a neutral tone. If the passage is neutral, any choice that expresses an opinion one way or the other is incorrect. Beware of choices that express strange attitudes rarely seen in GAMSAT section 1 passages. For example, if you see a choice like “obtuse ambiguity,” you should be highly suspicious of it.


Let’s take a look at each answer choices from  GAMSAT Section 1 tone and attitude question:


  • A: No. This choice is too strong, and too negative. The author does not condemn earlier criminal procedure systems; the passage only labels them as less highly evolved. The author definitely does not condemn “the evolution of criminal procedure systems” as a whole; the author says nothing negative about the inquisitorial system, which is the most highly evolved version.
  • B: Correct answer. The author is describing this evolution in a fairly neutral tone. Thus we can say that the tone of the passage is instructive; its goal is to teach us about the evolution of criminal procedure.
  • C: No. This choice is too strong and too positive. It is tempting, given that reference to “historically superior.” However, the passage isn’t praising the inquisitorial system, but just describing it as the most recent system. Even if you think that the author might have positive feelings about the inquisitorial system, “instructive” is still the better, safer choice.
  • D: No. “Ambivalent” means uncertain, or torn between multiple options. Nothing in the passage suggests that the author is torn between different opinions regarding the evolution of criminal procedure systems.


GAMSAT Section 1 Structured Type Practice Questions


Structure questions ask you to describe how the author makes his or her argument. They differ from other questions in that they address the passage’s construction or logical structure along with its content.


This is what puts them into the category of Complex Questions, even though they almost always relate to one specific area of the passage.


Structure questions ask for the purpose of a particular reference within the passage. That reference could be to an example, a conclusion, a contrasting point of view, etc. For example, the question stem might cite evidence from the passage and ask you to find the answer that describes the claim or larger point which is supposed by that evidence.

To answer these questions, it is crucial to identify the Main Point of the paragraph or chunk of information in which the reference cited in the question appears. Look for words—like for example or for instance—that indicate that what comes next is the support or evidence, and conclusion words—like therefore, thus, so, or hence—that indicate that what comes next is the claim being supported.


It is also possible for Structure questions to appear in General form, asking you to describe the organisation of the passage as a whole. When answering a General Structure question, separate the choices into pieces and check for pieces that are out of order, that have an inappropriate tone, or that describe things that never happened in the passage.


Specific Structure questions may be worded as follows:


  • “The author probably mentions the controversy surrounding Brown’s ideas in order to...”
  • “The three experiments carried out by Brown are cited in the passage as evidence that...”
  • “The author describes Brown’s unique methodology in order to make the point that...”


General structure questions can be phrased as:


  •  “Which of the following best describes the overall organisation of the passage?”
  • “Which of the following statements best describes the logical progression of the author’s argument?”


Example of Structured Type GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions  


Question 6:

The author cites the slogan “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” (paragraph 1) in order to:
A) show how aspects of the private vengeance system persist in today’s legal system.
B) criticise pre-modern systems of justice as overly violent.
C) characterise private vengeance as a system that required the victim himself to seek justice.
D) demonstrate how the legal rule rather than the facts of the case provided the foundation of the system of private vengeance.


GAMSAT Section 1 structured type question tips:


  1. Read the question word for word and identify the question type. The words “in order to” tell us that this is a Structure question.
  2. Translate the question into your own words; identify what the question task is asking you to do with the information in the passage. The question is asking us to describe why the author used this phrase at this point in the passage.
  3. Identify key words and phrases that refer to specific parts of the passage and go back to the passage to locate that information. The quote “An eye for an eye...” appears in paragraph 1. The author argues that it “captures the essence” of the private vengeance system, in which “the victim of a crime fashioned his own remedy and administered it privately....”
  4. Answer in your own words; articulate what the correct answer will need to do, based on the question type and the information in the passage. The correct answer must connect the quote to the system of private vengeance, and describe it as part of the author’s explanation of how victims themselves had to administer punishments
    to those that had wronged them.
  5. Use Process of Elimination to choose the least wrong answer choice. For GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions that are structured, beware of attractors that describe claims that are made in the passage but that are not relevant to or directly supported by the reference given in the question. Also beware of half right, half wrong choices. All parts of the correct answer choice must check out. The correct choice must be consistent with the main point and tone of the relevant chunk of passage, as well as with the bottom Line of the passage as a whole.


Let’s take a look at each answer choices from  GAMSAT Section 1 tone and attitude question:


  • A: No. The author argues that while the adversarial system does share some aspects with private vengeance, we have moved on to a system based on “fact-finding” where the judge directs the proceedings. Our modern inquisitorial system is “two historical steps removed from the system of private vengeance” (paragraph 2). Therefore, today’s legal system is shown to be very different from the system of private vengeance.
  • B: No. The tone of this choice does not match the passage. While we might think of “an eye for an eye” as a violent way to mete out justice, the author does not describe it that way, or criticise it as such.
  • C: Correct answer. The quote appears in a sentence describing private vengeance as “a system of self help.” The preceding sentence also discusses how “the victim had to fashion his own remedy and administer it privately....” This choice fits with both the content and tone of the passage and with the specific reference in the question.
  • D: No. This choice takes words from the end of the passage out of context. There is no direct connection made by the author between basing a system on a legal rule, and the “eye for an eye” approach to justice.


GAMSAT Section 1 Evaluate Type Practice Questions


Evaluate questions are similar to Structure questions in that you need to identify the logical structure of the author’s argument. Evaluate questions, however, go a step farther by asking either whether or not a particular claim is supported within that passage, or how well that claim is supported. 


To answer these types of GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions, you need to pay close attention to words that show the logical structure of the passage (e.g., for example, in the following instance, in conclusion, thus, however, etc.).


If the question asks which claim is supported, look for words indicating examples, descriptions, citation of authority, etc.


Choose the answer choice that is supported in the appropriate way. If the question asks which claim is NOT supported, eliminate the answer choices that are supported by specific examples, illustrations, etc.(depending on the wording of the question).

If the GAMSAT Section 1 practice question asks whether the claim is supported strongly or weakly, look to see if examples or explanations are given. If not, or if they are not directly relevant to the issue being discussed, the claim is supported weakly or not at all. The example GAMSAT section practice question below is of this type.

These questions may be phrased as follows:


  • “Which of the following claims made in the passage is supported by an example or reference to authority?”
  • “For which of the following of the author’s claims is NOT support provided in the text of the passage?” (Except/Least/Not format)
  • “The author asserts that Brown’s theoretical model is ‘dangerously incomplete.’ The support offered for this conclusion is...”
  • “Is Brown’s analysis of the implications of Herrera’s theoretical model well supported?”


Example of Evaluate GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions  


Question 7:

How well supported is the author’s claim that the adversarial system still retains some features of private vengeance?
A) Strongly, because the claim is inherent in the meaning of the word “adversarial”
B) Strongly, because examples of similarities between the two are provided by the author
C) Weakly, because the claim is logically inconsistent with the author’s description of the inquisitorial system
D) Weakly, because no evidence is cited to bolster the claim


GAMSAT Section 1 evaluate  type question tips:


  1. Read the question word for word and identify the question type. The question asks how well supported the author’s claim is, which makes it an Evaluate question. Notice that it doesn’t just ask what the author’s claim is (this would be a Retrieval or Inference question) or how the claim is supported (which would be a Structure question).
  2. Translate the question into your own words; identify what the question task is asking you to do with the information in the passage. The question is asking if there are any significant flaws or weaknesses in the author’s argument about the relationship between private vengeance and the adversarial system. If so, what are those flaws? If not, why is it a strong argument? If the question had asked, for example, “Which of the following is supported by reference to a relevant authority,” the question would be asking us to go back to the passage for each choice to find the one that does in fact have citation from a relevant authority supporting it.
  3. Identify key words and phrases that refer to specific parts of the passage and go back to the passage to locate that information. This question sends us back to paragraph 1. The claim cited in the question comes in the middle of the paragraph. Immediately after the claim, the author discusses particular similarities (as well as some differences) between private vengeance and the adversarial system.
  4. Answer in your own words; articulate what the correct answer will need to do, based on the question type and the information in the passage. Read through the examples supporting the claim: the defendant must conduct “his own pretrial investigation,” and “the trial is still viewed as a duel between two adversaries.” This leads the author to the conclusion that the adversarial system “symbolises and regularises punitive combat;” punitive combat characterises private vengeance. Because the author gives relevant examples, and draws reasonably well-supported conclusions based on those examples, we can say that the claim is strongly supported.
  5. Use Process of Elimination to choose the least wrong answer choice. Answer choices that conflate the strength of the argument are incorrect. Once you have narrowed it down to the choices that fall on the correct side (in this case, “strongly” or “weakly”) narrow it down further by analysing precisely what is either good or
    bad about the author’s logic. If the question had asked, for example, “Which of the following is supported by reference to a relevant authority?”, we would eliminate the choices that either 1) had no reference to authority supporting them or 2) were supported by reference to an irrelevant authority.


Let’s take a look at each answer choices from  GAMSAT Section 1 evaluate question:


  • A: No. While the claim is in fact supported strongly, it is not because of the definition of
    “adversarial.” Instead, it is because the author provides relevant examples.
  • B: Correct answer. The fact that the defendant must carry out his own pretrial investigation; and that the trial is still seen as a duel, show that the adversarial system retains aspects of private vengeance, even if they are in a somewhat more symbolic or institutionalised form.
  • C: No. There is no inconsistency in the logic of the author’s argument (which claims that the adversarial and inquisitorial systems are in fact quite different).
  • D: No. Direct, relevant evidence is in fact given (note the phrase “for example” in the passage, directly following the claim cited in the question).


GAMSAT Section 1 Strengthen and Weaken Practice Questions

GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions

A Strengthen/Weaken question asks you to evaluate the answer choices in terms of how they may support or undermine the passage (as opposed to Structure and Evaluate questions, which ask how, if, or how well the author has supported his or her own argument).


Notice that Strengthen and Weaken questions often use the phrase, “which of the following, if true....” Take those words if true—whether implied or explicitly stated—seriously. Do not try to find the answer choices in the passage. Take each statement as if it were true and find the one that does what it needs to do to the relevant part of the passage. These questions are quite different from the question types we have discussed up to this point in that they give you new information in the answer choices; the correct answer will change, not just describe or reflect, the passage.


Strengthen questions may be phrased as follows:


  • “Which of the following would provide the best support for the author’s conclusion in the last paragraph?”
  • “Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s claims?”


Weaken questions look very similar, but go in the opposite direction:


  • “Which of the following would most weaken the author’s point?”
  • “Which of the following, if true, would most undermine the author’s claims?”


You might also see a variation on Weaken questions that cites a statement from the passage, and asks you to decide which answer choice would be most weakened by that statement. For example,


  • “The claims made by Brown, if true, would cast the most doubt on which of the following statements?”


Regardless of the wording, you are doing the same thing in answering any Weaken question: finding the answer choice that is most inconsistent with the cited part of the passage.


Example of Strengthen and Weakness GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions  


Question 8:

Which of the following, if true, would be most inconsistent with the author’s main argument in the passage?
A) The vengeance system did not precede all systems of criminal procedure in the world.
B) The inquisitorial and adversarial systems have many things in common.
C) The adversarial system is a system of self-help.
D) Personal vengeance is at the heart of the inquisitorial system.
 

GAMSAT Section 1 strength and weakness type question tips:


  1. Read the question word for word and identify the question type. The words “most inconsistent with” identify this as a Weaken question. The question is asking us to undermine the author’s central argument.
  2. Translate the question into your own words; identify what the question task is asking you to do with the information in the passage. We will need to take each choice as true, rather than looking for support for the right answer in the passage. We will still need to go back to the passage, however, to pin down the credited response. We need the response that most undermines the author argument as a whole.
  3. Identify key words and phrases that refer to specific parts of the passage and go back to the passage to locate that information. Because the question asks us to weaken the author’s main argument, we can use our own articulation of the Bottom Line of the passage. With that already clearly defined, we don’t need to go back to the passage before we start evaluating the choices. If the question stem had asked us to weaken or strengthen a particular claim within the passage, we would need to first go back and find and paraphrase that part of the author’s argument.
  4. Answer in your own words; articulate what the correct answer will need to do, based on the question type and the information in the passage. The correct answer will suggest that the adversarial and inquisitorial systems are more similar than the author claims, and/or that the inquisitorial system is not in fact historically superior.
  5. Use Process of Elimination to choose the least wrong answer choice. For a Weaken question, the best answer will go the furthest toward making it impossible for the claim made in the passage to be true. Look for the answer choice that is most inconsistent
    with the relevant part of the passage. For a Strengthen question, look for the choice that 1) provides additional empirical evidence for the claim, or 2) fills in a logical gap in the argument made in the passage, or 3) anticipates and blocks a potential argument against the claim made in the passage. When using process of elimination on Strengthen and Weaken type GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions, eliminate choices that are irrelevant to the cited part or issue in the passage (that is, that are out of scope). Remember, however, that the correct answer will bring in new information: “irrelevant” is not the same thing as “never mentioned.” Do not eliminate choices on the basis of absolute or extreme wording. It is impossible on these questions (in contrast to specific and general questions) for an answer to be wrong solely on the basis of being too strong. The more it strengthens or weakens the passage, the better. In fact, choices on this question type may be wrong because they don’t go far enough to have a significant impact on the author’s argument. Finally, look out for attractors that weaken on a strengthen question, or that strengthen on a weak question.


Let’s take a look at each answer choices from  GAMSAT Section 1 strengthen and weaken question:


  • A: No. The author does not claim that private vengeance was the very first system used to punish criminals. For all we know, there could have been other pre-modern systems that preceded private vengeance. This choice attacks a claim that is never made by the author; it is therefore out of scope.
  • B: No. The passage itself suggests some similarities: e.g., there is a judge, and there is a private investigator searching for evidence to support the prosecution (the inquisitorial system just broadens those duties to include finding evidence for the defence as well). Because the author’s main argument is not founded on the assumption that there are few or no similarities between the two, this choice does not go far enough to weaken the passage.
  • C: No.This choice is entirely consistent with the author’s depiction of the adversarial system in paragraph 1.This choice strengthens ,not weakens, the author’s contrast between the adversarial and inquisitorial systems.
  • D: Correct answer. The author argues that the inquisitorial system is historically superior because it is “two historical steps removed from the system of private vengeance” (paragraph 2) and because it is based on “the facts of the case” (paragraph 3). The adversarial system, in contrast, “is only one historical step removed from the private vengeance system and still retains some of its characteristic features” (paragraph 1). If private vengeance was in fact at the heart of the inquisitorial system, this would undermine the author’s argument about the historical character and evolutionary place of the inquisitorial system. Thus, choice D is the best answer.


GAMSAT Section 1 New Information Type Practice Questions


All New Information questions have one thing in common: They provide new facts or scenarios in the question stem that are never mentioned in the passage. That said, the question may require you to do a variety of things with that new information. New Information questions break down into two general types.


Type 1: New Information/Inference questions


These questions give you new facts that are in the same general issue area of the passage and then ask what, according to the passage, is likely to be true. In essence, you’re inserting the new facts into the existing passage, and then drawing an inference from both the new and the old information.


Before you read the answer choices, answer the question in your own words, based on the information already in the passage and on the new facts in the question stem.


For example, the question might ask:


  • “If China experienced an unusually rainy winter, what would also be true, based on
    the passage?”
  • “According to the passage, what would likely happen if China experienced an unusually rainy winter?”
  • “What would the author recommend as the best way to predict whether China is likely
    to experience an unusually rainy winter next year?”
  • “If a meteorologist were to claim that China’s climate can be studied in isolation, how
    would the author respond?”


Type 2: New Information/Strengthen/Weaken questions


These questions provide you with new facts in the question stem (as opposed to pure Strengthen/Weaken questions that give the new information only in the answer choices). They then ask you to evaluate what effect those new facts would have on the author’s argument as a whole, or on one specific claim made or described in the passage.


Approach these questions much like you do Strengthen/Weaken, and Evaluate questions. Identify the issue of the question, and go back to the passage to find the relevant sections. Pay close attention to the  logical structure of the author’s argument. Define what the correct answer needs to do based on the passage, the information in the question stem, and the direction (strengthen or weaken) the correct choice must take.


This type of New Information question may be phrased as follows:


  • “Suppose it was shown to be true that when winters in China are unusually rainy,
    summers in Latin America are unusually dry. What effect would this have on the
    author’s argument as it is described in the passage?”
  • “Which of the following claims made in the passage would be most strengthened by data showing that industrialisation has affected global weather patterns?”
  • “Recent studies have shown that the jet stream has shifted 10 degrees in latitude over the past five years. This fact tends to undermine the author’s claim that...”
  • “El Niño has been proven to be a recurring and invariant pattern. This fact tends to
    support the author’s claims in paragraph 2 because...”


The following Sample Question falls into the Type 1 category.


Example of New Information Type GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions 


Question 9:

Suppose that in an inquisitorial system of justice a judge perceives that the prosecution is misdirecting the trial by introducing irrelevant evidence. The author would most likely advise the judge to:
A) protect the prosecution by turning a blind eye to the proceedings.
B) admonish the prosecution and get the trial back to the issues at hand.
C) call a mistrial and free the defendant.
D) refuse to participate in the trial.


GAMSAT Section 1 new information type question tips:


  1. Read the question word for word and identify the question type. The word “suppose” is our first indication that this is a New Information question. What follows is a scenario that does not already appear in the passage. The question asks us what the author of the passage would advise, making this a Type 1 question.
  2. Translate the question into your own words; identify what the question task is asking you to do with the information in the passage. The question is asking us to find an answer choice that is consistent both with the passage and with the new situation in the question stem; in this new scenario, the judge discovers that the
    prosecution is breaking the rules.
  3. Identify key words and phrases that refer to specific parts of the passage and go back to the passage to locate that information. The role of the judge in the inquisitorial system is described at the end of paragraph 2. The judge must “take an active part in the conduct of the trial, with a role that is both directive and protective.”
  4. Answer in your own words; articulate what the correct answer will need to do, based on the question type and the information in the passage. Based on the passage, the judge in this situation must take action to protect the defence from the unfair tactics used by the prosecution, and must direct the trial in a way consistent with the system’s rules.
  5. Use Process of Elimination to choose the least wrong answer choice. A common attractor for any New Information question is an answer choice that focuses on
    the wrong part of the passage. Also beware of answer choices that are inconsistent with the passage (for all but the Weaken version of this question type), or that deal with irrelevant issues. This means choices that do not connect to the passage, or that are not relevant to the theme of the new information in the question. For Type 1 questions, beware of extreme language. The correct answer can’t go too far beyond the scope and tone of the passage. For Type 2 questions, beware of choices that go in the opposite direction (e.g., that strengthen instead of weaken or vice versa).


Let’s take a look at each answer choices from  GAMSAT Section 1 new information question:


  • A: No. This is inconsistent with the author’s claim that in the inquisitorial system, the interests of the defence as well as of the prosecution should be protected. This is also inconsistent with the author’s claim that the judge must take an active role to direct the proceedings.
    B: Correct answer. This is consistent with the author’s claim that the judge has a protective role (protecting the rights of the defence by admonishing the prosecution) and a directive role (getting the trial back on track). This choice is relevant to the theme of the new information and is consistent with the passage (as required by the question task). Thus, it is the “least wrong” of the four choices.
    C: No. This choice is too extreme; the passage does not indicate that prosecutorial misbehaviour would invalidate the trial as a whole. This choice is also out of scope; the issue of calling a mistrial arises in neither the passage nor the question stem.
    D: No. As in choice A, this is inconsistent with the author’s claim that judges in the inquisitorial system must play an active role.


GAMSAT Section 1 Analogy Type Practice Questions


These questions ask you to take something described in the passage, abstract it, and then apply it to an entirely new situation. They differ from New Information questions in that the new information is in the answer choices, not in the question stem.


They differ from "strengthen" questions in that the new information in the correct choice will not make the original argument stronger than it already was. It will be similar to it in logic, but is likely to be on a different issue or subject matter.


These questions can be tricky, as all the answers at first glance may seem to have nothing to do with the passage. However, you are matching the logic or purpose of the author’s argument, not the informational content of the passage. Therefore, the correct answer can match the logic of the passage (or relevant part of the passage) while still bringing in entirely new content.


Take for example a passage in which the author argues the following: “Weather is the result of a global interactive system. Therefore, to understand and predict the weather in a particular region, you must analyse how the climates of all regions interact with each other, and not limit your focus to the weather patterns in that region alone.”


The question might ask:


  • “Which of the following approaches to educational reform would most likely be advocated by a school board member following the same logic as the author of the passage?” 


To answer this question, you must first generalise the author’s own claims to create an abstracted model that could be applied to other situations.


For example, you might say, “Large interactive systems cannot be understood by looking at the parts in isolation from the whole; you must understand how those parts relate to and affect each other,” or, more simply, “the whole is more than the sum of its parts.”


Now, take this generalised version into the answer choices, and look for a choice that has the same theme. The school board member might place the school system within the context of larger socioeconomic forces that also affect educational performance. Or, she might argue that the school itself is a large interactive system, and that you can’t improve education by addressing only one piece of the puzzle (standardised testing, for example). As you can see, a wide variety of answer choices are possible.


Don’t waste time coming up with specific scenarios; generalise the passage’s argument as much as possible, and then match each answer choice against that abstracted model.

Remember that the correct answer must depend solely on the content of the passage, not on outside information or your own opinion!


Example of Analogy Type GAMSAT Section 1 Practice Questions 


Question 10:

The author’s discussion of the history of systems of criminal procedure is most similar to which of the following?
A) a study of the transmission of infectious diseases
B) a proposal for civil rights reforms
C) an evolutionary biologist’s study of plant species
D) an architect’s blueprint


GAMSAT Section 1 analogy type question tips:


  • Read the question word for word and identify the question type. The phrase “most similar to” tells us that this is an analogy question.
  • Translate the question into your own words; identify what the question task is asking you to do with the information in the passage. The question is asking us to describe the overall logic and purpose of the passage, in order to match it to a similar logic and purpose (but, in a different subject area) in the correct answer.
  • Identify key words and phrases that refer to specific parts of the passage and go back to the passage to locate that information. Because this question asks us to make an analogy to the author’s overall logic and purpose in the passage as a whole, we don’t necessarily need to go back the passage at this point; use your own articulation of the Bottom Line, and your understanding of the logical structure of the
    passage, as a guide.
  • Answer in your own words; articulate what the correct answer will need to do, based on the question type and the information in the passage. The passage describes the historical evolution of criminal procedure: how private vengeance evolved into the adversarial system, which then evolved into the inquisitorial system. Therefore, we need an answer that has this theme of evolution or change over time.
  • Use Process of Elimination to choose the least wrong answer choice. Keep in mind that all of the answer choices may be on different topics (i.e., not on criminal
    procedure). The correct choice will be the one that is most similar in logic to the author’s overall argument in the passage. Eliminate choices that have the wrong tone (compared to the passage). When you are down to two, pick the choice that has the most similarities. If one of the two remaining choices has one similarity, but the other remaining choice is similar in two ways, the latter choice will be the credited response.


Let’s take a look at each answer choices from  GAMSAT Section 1 analogy question:


  • A: No. First of all, this choice has a negative tone that does not match the passage. While the passage does describe how the adversarial system maintained some of the characteristics of private vengeance, the author doesn’t use language suggesting it was “infected” (which has an overly negative tone) by the earlier system. Furthermore, this theme of transmission of a disease from one thing to another doesn’t fit with the passage’s theme of difference and contrast (between the adversarial and inquisitorial systems).
  • B: No. The tone of this choice does not match the tone and purpose of the passage. The author describes change over time, but does not recommend further change.
  • C: Correct answer . An evolutionary biologist studying plant species would look at change over time through the succession of species. This choice is most similar to the logic and purpose of the passage, and matches the tone reasonably well.
  • D: No. Compare this choice to choice C. While there are some aspects of a blueprint (describing the structure a system), there is no theme in this choice of change over time. Also, the author of the passage is describing structures themselves (that already exist) not plans for structures.


Now that we have looked at the 10 common GAMSAT Section 1 practice question types in the GAMSAT exam, let’s look at examples of the another two formats that often come up in the GAMSAT exam:


  • Except/Least/Not
  • Roman Numeral questions.


Except/Least/Not GAMSAT Section 1 Question Types


This question type can appear in combination with most of the question tasks described above. Except/Least and Note GAMSAT section 1 questions are very common on GAMSAT Section 1 poetry.


Because of its potentially confusing structure (looking for the worst instead of the best), students often misread or misapply the question. In fact, the correct answer to this question type can be the wacky or totally irrelevant answer choice that you are used to eliminating first.

To avoid making a mistake when you're practising for GAMSAT section 1, use your scratch paper. Write down the passage number (if you haven’t already) and the number of the question. 


Next to the question number jot down a translation of the question, including what kind of choices you will be eliminating. Do this before looking at the answer choices.

For example, for a Weaken Except question, write down, “eliminate what weakens, pick what strengthens or has no effect.”

Also jot down the four letters. As you evaluate each answer choice, write Y (in this case, for yes, it does weaken the passage) or N (for no, it does not weaken the passage) next to the choice.


Cross it off on your list  as you strike it out the answers. At the end, you should have three Y's and one N. Pick the one that is not like the others!


GAMSAT Section 1 Except/Least/Not Type Practice Questions


Question 11:

The author would be most likely to agree with all of the following statements EXCEPT:
A) the judge actively participates in the inquisitorial system.
B) the prosecutor in the adversarial system need not disclose evidence to the defence.
C) the inquisitorial system regularises punitive combat.
D) the vengeance system was a system of self-help.


GAMSAT Section 1 except/least/note type question tips:


  1. Read the question word for word and identify the question type. Except/Least/Not questions are quite easy to recognise. Here, the key word is except. This is an Inference question (“The author would be most likely to agree”) in Except/Least/Not format.
  2. Translate the question into your own words; identify what the question task is asking you to do with the information in the passage. This question is asking us to eliminate the choices that are supported by the passage (that is, statements that the author of the passage would accept as true), and to pick the one that is most inconsistent with the author’s argument.
  3. Identify key words and phrases that refer to specific parts of the passage and go back to the passage to locate that information. In this question, there is no specific reference to the passage. You will need, however, to go back to the passage as you work through the answer choices. If the question had given us a specific reference (e.g., to “the police department”), you would go back to the passage and read above and below that reference before moving on to the next step.
  4. Answer in your own words; articulate what the correct answer will need to do, based on the question type and the information in the passage. The correct choice will contradict the passage in some way. The incorrect answers will be consistent with the passage information as well as consistent with the author’s tone and purpose.
  5. Use Process of Elimination to choose the least wrong answer choice. As you might predict, the most common attractor is the opposite: a choice that would be the
    correct answer to a Standard Format question. Approach Except/Least/Not questions carefully and methodically to avoid falling into this (very annoying) trap. Keep in mind that your reasons for eliminating choices (e.g., language that is too extreme, or a statement that mixes up two different things in the passage) now become your reasons for keeping and perhaps selecting an answer.


Let’s take a look at each answer choices from  GAMSAT Section 1 except/least/not question:


  • A: No. This choice is directly supported by the end of paragraph 1.
  • B: No. This choice is supported by the discussion of pretrial discovery in paragraph 2. If the inquisitorial system is different in that it does require the prosecutor to disclose its evidence to the court (and so to the defence), the author would agree that the prosecutor need not disclose it under the adversarial system.
  • C: Correct Answer. This is true of the adversarial, not the inquisitorial system (see the end of paragraph 1). This choice contradicts the passage; therefore, it is the credited response.
  • D: No. This choice is supported by the middle of paragraph 1.


Roman Numeral GAMSAT Section 1 Question Types


Like Except/Least/Not questions, Roman Numeral questions can appear in combination with a variety of question tasks. 


To approach these questions, evaluate numeral I (unless it appears in all four choices, in which case it must be true). If it is not an appropriate answer to the question, strike out all of the choices that include it. If it is appropriate, eliminate the choices that do not include it.


Compare the choices you have left to each other.


If numeral II or III appears in all of them, read it but don’t over-think it. Unless there is something terribly wrong with it, it must also be true based on the combinations you have.


Make a mental note or jot down the three numerals so that you can cross them off or circle them as you evaluate each one on your scratch paper that you're permitted to take into the GAMSAT exam. 


GAMSAT Section 1 Roman Numeral Type Practice Questions


Question 12: 

According to the passage, which of the following is a duty of the prosecutor in the inquisitorial system?
I. To present evidence that may lead to the defendant’s exoneration
II. To disclose all evidence in his/her possession
III. To assume a role that is both protective and directive

A) II only
B) III only
C) I and II only
D) I and III only


GAMSAT Section 1 roman numeral type question tips:


  1. Read the question word for word and identify the question type. This is a Retrieval question (“According to the passage”) in Roman Numeral format.
  2. Translate the question into your own words; identify what the question task is asking you to do with the information in the passage. The question is asking which of the three statements accurately represent things that are required of a prosecutor within the inquisitorial system.
  3. Identify key words and phrases that refer to specific parts of the passage and go back to the passage to locate that information. The inquisitorial system is described in paragraphs 2 and 3. Prosecutor’s duties are specifically mentioned in the context of pretrial discovery, in the second half of paragraph 2 (after the word “additionally,” and before the word “finally”).
  4. Answer in your own words; articulate what the correct answer will need to do, based on the question type and the information in the passage. Prosecutors in the inquisitorial system must permit full disclosure of all evidence they have uncovered, even if that evidence would help the defence. They must also comply with all of
    the other rules of the inquisitorial system.
  5. Use Process of Elimination (POE) to choose the least wrong answer choice. In some ways, you are approaching the choices just as you would for a Standard question (in
    our Sample, a Retrieval task). For each numeral, ask yourself if this statement accomplishes the question task (here, if it describes a prosecutor’s duty in the inquisitorial system). However, you can also often use the combinations in the answer choices to your advantage. If, for example, you are sure that numeral I is supported, and unsure about numeral III, but no choice includes both I and III, you know that numeral III is in fact not supported (as it doesn’t appear in any of the possible correct answer choices). If you tend to miss roman numeral questions, diagnose the most common reasons for your mistakes. If you tend to pick incomplete answers that are missing one or two numerals, you may be reading the numerals too quickly, picking only the ones that are the most obvious, and missing the more subtly supported statements. If you tend to pick choices that include too many, you may not be going back to the passage enough to check your answers carefully against the text.


Let’s take a look at each answer choices from  GAMSAT Section 1 roman numerals question:

  • Roman Numeral I is True. This statement is supported by the author’s discussion of pretrial discovery in paragraph 2. Therefore, we can eliminate choices A and B, because neither includes Roman numeral I. We are now down to choices C and D. The difference between them is that  choice C includes II but not III, and choice D includes III but not II. It is now a battle between choices II and III— only one of them can be correct!
  • Roman Numeral II is True: This is also supported by the author’s description of pretrial discovery. Note that we essentially have the correct answer at this stage, as there is no answer that includes all
    three numerals.
    Roman Numeral III is False: False. This is the role of the judge, not of the prosecutor (see the end of paragraph 2, after  the word “finally”). So, our credited response is Choice C: I and II only.


Conclusion 


Well there you have it folks. A comprehensive list of questions you are to expect in the GAMSAT and an opportunity to build your strengths when going through GAMSAT Section 1 practice questions as you study for the GAMSAT. 


If you haven't done so already, check out even more awesome content by visiting our GAMSAT section 1 preparation article, GAMSAT section 2 preparation article and last but by no means least, GAMSAT section 3 preparation article. 

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90% of your GAMSAT problems can be solved by CrackGAMSAT. Solving the other 10% just requires good procrastination skills and a huge amount of coffee :)

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